There are cases in which the ESTA must be renewed even if it has not yet expired. This happens if you change / renew your passport, change your name, gender or country of citizenship or residence. The same applies when circumstances or answers to some of the questions in the form change. In these cases you must request a new ESTA that will be updated.
Exemple 1: Fernand
Fabio and his friends took a vacation in Arizona and Texas. On his return Fabio had some problems with the authorities. Fabio knows that when he filled in the ESTA form online, he replied that no, he had never had any problems with the authorities. Now Fabio wants to return soon to the United States, he wants to visit New York.
Exemple 2: Thérèse
Thérèse is a British citizen. She lives and works in Paris, and travels frequently to Houston for short-term business. She met Philippe in Paris, who is now her husband. Therese is very proud of her surname, Charlton, and she decided to keep it and add Dupont, her husband’s family name.
Thérèse and Philippe want to spend the next vacation in Los Angeles. Thérèse is not going to be able to use the existing ESTA, used during her trips to Houston because it is in the name of Thérèse Charlton, whereas today she is Therese Charlton Dupont.
So Thérèse needs to apply for a new online travel authorization with the correct name.