If the passport data is changed, it will be necessary to request a new ESTA authorization. The passport is the only internationally valid identity document. You must be sure that your passport is valid and not expired for the duration of the trip.
Exemple 1: Victor
Six months ago Victor left with his friends in Las Vegas. For the first time he obtained an online travel authorization with his French passport.
Some months after his return Victor’s passport expired and he had to renew it.
In two months, Victor will travel to Mexico via Miami. Even if it is only in transit, it must have an updated ESTA.
So Victor can not use the same ESTA that he used to go to Las Vegas.
Although the ESTA is valid for two years, it must be used with the same passport. If the passport is modified or renewed, a new ESTA form must be completed.
Exemple 2: Marie
Marie has the Chilean nationality. A little less than a year ago she went on honeymoon in the United States.
After the marriage, Marie and her husband moved from Santiago to Toulouse. Marie also obtained French citizenship. For the next holiday they will go to see their family in Chile, via New York. To perform the transit, Mary will need a valid ESTA.
Now Marie has dual nationality (Chilean and French) and has also changed residence, so she can no longer use the same ESTA that she had for her honeymoon. Marie will have to request a new ESTA with the new information.